Why Did The Sykes Picot Agreement Happen

After the outbreak of war in the summer of 1914, the Allies – Britain, France and Russia – had much discussion about the future of the Ottoman Empire, which is now fighting on the side of Germany and the central powers, and its vast area in the Middle East, Arabia and southern Europe. In March 1915, Britain signed a secret agreement with Russia, whose plans for the territory of the Empire had prompted the Turks to join Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1914. Under its terms, Russia would annex the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, and retain control of the Dardanelles (the extremely important strait that connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean) and the Gallipoli Peninsula, the target of a major Allied military invasion, which began in April 1915. In exchange, Russia would accept British claims to other territories of the former Ottoman Empire and Central Persia, including the oil-rich region of Mesopotamia. On April 21, Faisal headed east. Before leaving, on 17 April Clemenceau sent a draft letter in which the French government declared that it recognized «Syria`s right to independence in the form of a federation of autonomous governments in accordance with the traditions and wishes of the population», claiming that Fayçal had recognized «that France is called a power, Syria the necessary assistance by various advisers On 20 April , Fayçal Clemenceau assured that he was «deeply impressed by the selfless kindness of your statements while I was in Paris, and I must thank you for first proposing the sending of the Allied Commission which will soon travel to the East to identify the wishes of the local peoples regarding the future organization of their country. I am sure the Syrian people will know how to show you their gratitude. [95] The agreement effectively divided the Ottoman provinces outside the Arabian Peninsula into territories of control and influence of the United Kingdom and France. The countries controlled by Great Britain and France were divided by the Sykes-Picot line. [5] The agreement that gave Britain control of present-day southern Israel and Palestine, Jordan and southern Iraq, as well as another small area including the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. [6] [7] [8] France should control southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. [8] On 18 September Faisal arrived in London and on the 23rd day he met Lloyd George, who explained the memory aid and the British position. Lloyd George stated that he was «in the position of a man who had inherited two groups of commitments, those of King Hussein and those of the French,» Faisal noted that the agreement «seemed to be based on the 1916 agreement between the British and the French.»